Flat feet and fallen arches are terms used to describe lowering of the long inner arch of the foot. In the past, we thought that flat feet were a sign of a poorly developed or poorly structured foot. Now we know that people with flat feet function generally well and that flat feet don?t cause many foot problems. The most important factor in foot soreness and injury is not how flat or high your arches are, but the way you walk and move. If your feet move abnormally while you are walking or standing, this can make you more prone to injuries and foot soreness.
There are a number of possible causes for arch pain, but the most common are structural imbalances of the foot, such a pronated foot (rolls inward at the ankles). This is often not enough in isolation to cause the problem, but in combination with other factors arch pain may develop. These other factors are usually associated with overuse - running, walking, hard surfaces and/or OFAD (on feet all day), usually combined with inadequate or non-supportive footwear. The more common specific causes of arch pain can be plantar fasciitis (strain of the plantar fascia - a strong ligament that supports the arch), tarsal tunnel syndrome (a pinched nerve at the ankle that refers pain to the arch), foot strain from a pronated foot or flat foot, there can be osteoarthritis of the joints in the midfoot that can cause arch pain.
People suffering from pain in the arch sometimes complain of burning or soreness on the foot sole, which is worse in the morning and after physical activity. There may also be some tenderness when pressure is applied to the sole of the foot or heel. In addition to this, patients tend to complain of more pain when they stand on tiptoe.
To come to a correct diagnosis, your podiatrist will examine your foot by using his or her fingers to look for a lump or stone bruise in the ball of your foot. He or she will examine your foot to look for deformities such as high or low arches, or to see if you have hammertoes. He or she may use x-rays, MRIs (magnetic resource imaging), and CT scans to rule out fractures and damage to ligaments, tendons, and other surrounding tissues. Your doctor will also inquire about your daily activities, symptoms, medical history, and family history. If you spend a lot of time running or jumping, you may be at a higher risk for pain in the bottom of your foot. These diagnostic tests will help your doctor come to a proper diagnosis and create an appropriate treatment plan.
Non Surgical Treatment
Doctors commonly prescribe shoe inserts, or orthotics, to support the arch. These devices make walking and standing more comfortable for a person with fallen arches, reports the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Orthotics are typically worn with closed shoes. They are available over-the-counter or can be custom-made.
Surgery may be necessary in situations where the symptoms are likely to get worse over time, or when pain and instability cannot be corrected with external orthopedic devices. There are many types of surgical procedures, including cavus foot reconstruction, which can be performed to correct the foot and the ankle and restore function and muscle balance.
You may start exercising the muscles of your foot right away by gently stretching and strengthening them. Frozen can roll. Roll your bare injured foot back and forth from your heel to your mid-arch over a frozen juice can. Repeat for 3 to 5 minutes. This exercise is particularly helpful if it is done first thing in the morning. Towel stretch. Sit on a hard surface with your injured leg stretched out in front of you. Loop a towel around your toes and the ball of your foot and pull the towel toward your body keeping your leg straight. Hold this position for 15 to 30 seconds and then relax. Repeat 3 times. Standing calf stretch. Stand facing a wall with your hands on the wall at about eye level. Keep your injured leg back with your heel on the floor. Keep the other leg forward with the knee bent. Turn your back foot slightly inward (as if you were pigeon-toed). Slowly lean into the wall until you feel a stretch in the back of your calf. Hold the stretch for 15 to 30 seconds. Return to the starting position. Repeat 3 times. Do this exercise several times each day. Seated plantar fascia stretch. Sit in a chair and cross the injured foot over the knee of your other leg. Place your fingers over the base of your toes and pull them back toward your shin until you feel a comfortable stretch in the arch of your foot. Hold 15 seconds and repeat 3 times. Plantar fascia massage. Sit in a chair and cross the injured foot over the knee of your other leg. Place your fingers over the base of the toes of your injured foot and pull your toes toward your shin until you feel a stretch in the arch of your foot. With your other hand, massage the bottom of your foot, moving from the heel toward your toes. Do this for 3 to 5 minutes. Start gently. Press harder on the bottom of your foot as you become able to tolerate more pressure.